The AHA 2010 Guidelines – The ABC’s of CPR Have Changed!

Everyone in the medical field knows their ABCs, but following the American Heart Association’s updated CPR guidelines for 2010, millions of healthcare professionals and lay workers may have to relearn. In recent decades, the acronym “ABC” has been used to remember the steps involved in emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but, after 5 years of research, the new guidelines suggest that there is a better method to help victims of cardiac arrest.

CPR is the first recommended treatment for victims believed to be in cardiac arrest (whose hearts have stopped pumping blood) and provides a combination of artificial respiration and chest compressions to support a small amount of blood flow to the heart and brain until normal heart function is restored.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is often caused by a condition called ventricular fibrillation (VF), which is essentially an abnormal heart rhythm that causes the heart to tremble without pumping blood. Victims of VF cardiac arrest require an electric shock to the heart (defibrillation) to reset the heart and restore a normal rhythm. However, after collapse and until a portable automatic external defibrillator i (AED) can be applied, or until rescuers can arrive at the scene, CPR is critical to support the victim and increase their chances of recovery afterwards. defibrillation.

Changing ABC to CAB

The biggest change in the new guidelines is an improvement in the basic life support (BLS) sequence for trained rescuers from “A-B-C” to “C-A-B”. The traditional practice was to follow “A-B-C”, which means airways, breathing and then chest compressions, which focused on opening the victims’ airways before attempting to manually activate blood flow with chest compressions; the newly published guidelines recommend changing that familiar process to “C-A-B,” meaning chest compressions, airways, and then breathing.

The reason for this shift in the CPR paradigm is consistent research indicating that in most cardiac arrests, chest compressions and rapid defibrillation are critical to aiding survival. In the CAB sequence, ventilation will be delayed only minimally and major compressions will be started earlier.

Even after cardiac arrest, there is enough oxygen in the bloodstream to maintain the heart and brain for several minutes as long as compressions circulate that oxygen. Delivering oxygen through rescue breaths is actually harmful as it requires the rescuer not to press on the chest for several seconds.
Basically, compressions come first now – only then do you focus on the airways and breathing. These new recommendations apply to all ages, including children and infants, and only infants should still receive the upper airway method according to the revised guidelines.Chicago CPR Classes

It has also been suggested that the ABC sequence may have actually played a role in the prevention of care: since it required the hardest part first – opening the airways – it could be one of the reasons why fewer than 1/3 of people in cardiac arrest receives CPR.

Faster and harder compressions

The second biggest change required by the new 2010 guidelines is faster and stronger compressions. For adult CPR, the previous instructions called for 1 ½ to 2 inches deep pressure, but the new standard requires rescuers to compress the chest at least two inches with each thrust, at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. The AHA states that “Staying Alive” – ​​the popular tune of the Bee Gees – is actually the perfect rhythm to follow when giving compressions. At the recommended rate, 30 compressions should take 18 seconds, a fairly rapid pace to maintain.

This rapid rate is so imperative because the number of chest compressions delivered per minute during CPR is an important determinant in victims who recover a pulse, otherwise known as spontaneous circulation return, or ROSC, and recover with good neurological function and none brain damage. Generally, delivering more compressions during resuscitation is associated with better survival, and delivering fewer compressions is linked with lower survival.

Don’t worry about looking, hearing or hearing

Another notable change in the new recommendations is the removal of gaze, hearing, and sensation, a protocol that (just as it sounds) wanted rescuers to observe the breathing capacity of the patient.